FHL1 / YPR104C Overview

Standard Name
FHL1 1
Systematic Name
SPP42 2 18
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Regulator of ribosomal protein (RP) transcription; has forkhead associated domain that binds phosphorylated proteins; recruits coactivator Ifh1p or corepressor Crf1p to RP gene promoters; also has forkhead DNA-binding domain though in vitro DNA binding assays give inconsistent results; computational analyses suggest it binds DNA directly at highly active RP genes and indirectly through Rap1p motifs at others; suppresses RNA pol III and splicing factor prp4 mutants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Name Description
Fork Head-Like 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
1926 +/- 765
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all FHL1 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Transcription regulator-binding protein involved in the regulation of ribosomal protein gene transcription

View computational annotations

Cellular Component

Manually Curated
Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

232 total interactions for 213 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 15
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 8
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 10
  • Reconstituted Complex: 2
  • Two-hybrid: 3

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Lethality: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 10
  • Negative Genetic: 125
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 46
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 8
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

FHL1 encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the widely conserved eukaryotic forkhead family of proteins, which contain the characteristic forkhead (FH), or winged helix, DNA-binding domain. Many forkhead proteins also have a second domain referred to as the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain which binds phosphorylated threonine residues within proteins. Fhl1p has both FH and FHA domains, and binds the sequence 5'-GACGCAMA-3', which is found at over 400 locations throughout the genome. Fhl1p is involved in regulating the expression of ribosomal protein (RP) genes by RNA polymerase II. Its FHA domain is required for interaction of Fhl1p with either Ifh1p or Crf1p. Transcription of RP genes is coordinated with that of rDNA, and is regulated in response to stress and growth conditions through a complex mechanism that involves Fhl1p, coactivator Ifh1p, corepressor Crf1p, and the TOR pathway. Fhl1p localizes to promoters of RP genes, where it can recruit either activator Ifh1p or repressor Crf1p. Both Fhl1p and Ifh1p are constitutively localized to the nucleus, but localization of Crf1p is regulated by its phosphorylation state via the TOR pathway. Fhl1p localization to RP gene promoters and RP gene expression are dependent on Rap1p and Hmo1p. Fhl1p is also loosely associated with the CURI complex, which is thought to repress transcription of ribosomal protein genes by sequestering coactivator Ifh1p. Both the CURI complex and Hmo1p, which is required for rDNA transcription by RNA polymerase I, are thought to be involved in coordinate regulation of rDNA transcription and RP gene transcription to control production of ribosomes in response to growth conditions.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 2010-02-12

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.