Reference: Choudhary K, et al. (2022) S. cerevisiae Cells Can Grow without the Pds5 Cohesin Subunit. mBio e0142022

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Abstract


During DNA replication, the newly created sister chromatids are held together until their separation at anaphase. The cohesin complex is in charge of creating and maintaining sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) in all eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, cohesin is composed of two elongated proteins, Smc1 and Smc3, bridged by the kleisin Mcd1/Scc1. The latter also acts as a scaffold for three additional proteins, Scc3/Irr1, Wpl1/Rad61, and Pds5. Although the HEAT-repeat protein Pds5 is essential for cohesion, its precise function is still debated. Deletion of the ELG1 gene, encoding a PCNA unloader, can partially suppress the temperature-sensitive pds5-1 allele, but not a complete deletion of PDS5. We carried out a genetic screen for high-copy-number suppressors and another for spontaneously arising mutants, allowing the survival of a pds5Delta elg1Delta strain. Our results show that cells remain viable in the absence of Pds5 provided that there is both an elevation in the level of Mcd1 (which can be due to mutations in the CLN2 gene, encoding a G1 cyclin), and an increase in the level of SUMO-modified PCNA on chromatin (caused by lack of PCNA unloading in elg1Delta mutants). The elevated SUMO-PCNA levels increase the recruitment of the Srs2 helicase, which evicts Rad51 molecules from the moving fork, creating single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) regions that serve as sites for increased cohesin loading and SCC establishment. Thus, our results delineate a double role for Pds5 in protecting the cohesin ring and interacting with the DNA replication machinery. IMPORTANCE Sister chromatid cohesion is vital for faithful chromosome segregation, chromosome folding into loops, and gene expression. A multisubunit protein complex known as cohesin holds the sister chromatids from S phase until the anaphase stage. In this study, we explore the function of the essential cohesin subunit Pds5 in the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. We performed two independent genetic screens to bypass the function of the Pds5 protein. We observe that Pds5 protein is a cohesin stabilizer, and elevating the levels of Mcd1 protein along with SUMO-PCNA accumulation on chromatin can compensate for the loss of the PDS5 gene. In addition, Pds5 plays a role in coordinating the DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion establishment. This work elucidates the function of cohesin subunit Pds5, the G1 cyclin Cln2, and replication factors PCNA, Elg1, and Srs2 in the proper regulation of sister chromatid cohesion.

Reference Type
Journal Article
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Choudhary K, Itzkovich Z, Alonso-Perez E, Bishara H, Dunn B, Sherlock G, Kupiec M
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