ALD4 / YOR374W Overview

Standard Name
ALD4 1
Systematic Name
ALDH2 11 , ALD7 14
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; required for growth on ethanol and conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate; phosphorylated; activity is K+ dependent; utilizes NADP+ or NAD+ equally as coenzymes; expression is glucose repressed; can substitute for cytosolic NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase when directed to the cytosol; polymerizes into filaments in meiotic cells; human homolog ALDH2 can complement yeast ald4 mutant 1 2 3 4 5
Name Description
ALdehyde Dehydrogenase 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
22200 +/- 7817
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results.

View all ALD4 alleles in SGD search

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

An aldehyde dehydrogenase involved in ethanol metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, acetate biosythesis and NADPH regeneration; localized to mitochondria

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-esseential gene; null mutants have abnormal vacuolar morphology, decreased respiratory growth, decreased growth on galactose and ribose, increased lifespan, are sensitive to oleic acid and to oxidative stress, and are resistant to the allergen nickel sulfate
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

148 total interactions for 131 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 79
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 4
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 1
  • Cross-Linking-MS (XL-MS): 15
  • Proximity Label-MS: 2

Genetic Interactions

  • Negative Genetic: 31
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 2
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 3
  • Positive Genetic: 8
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 3
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

ALD4 encodes a mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase that oxidizes acetaldehyde to acetate. Acetaldehyde is a highly toxic intermediate in several metabolic pathways, particularly in glucose fermentation. Efficient detoxification of acetaldehyde is therefore of critical importance to the overall cell metabolism. Acetaldehyde is a product of pyruvate decarboxylation and its removal involves the conversion to acetate, which can be subsequently turned into acetyl-CoA and used in energy production and biosynthesis, or excreted to the culture medium. Ald4p and its minor isoform Ald5p are involved in the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass pathway, one of three metabolic pathways that convert pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. The enzyme is activated by K+ and thiols, and utilizes NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactors. Transcription of the ALD4 gene is highly repressed by glucose and induced during growth on ethanol and upon diauxic shift. The glucose repression has been shown to involve the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), whereas the induction depends on the general stress response transcription factors Msn2p and Msn4p, and on the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1p.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 2009-08-14

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.