RTG1 / YOL067C Overview

Standard Name
RTG1 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Transcription factor (bHLH) involved in interorganelle communication; contributes to communication between mitochondria, peroxisomes, and nucleus; target of Hog1p; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization 1 2 3 4 5 6
Name Description
ReTroGrade regulation 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
4876 +/- 2069


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results.

View all RTG1 alleles in SGD search

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Sequence-specific DNA binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor involved in mitochondria-nucleus signal transduction and the cellular response to oleate; localizes to the nucleus and cytoplasm

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background.

Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

659 total interactions for 471 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 10
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 2
  • Co-localization: 1
  • PCA: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 3

Genetic Interactions

  • Negative Genetic: 471
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 3
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 11
  • Positive Genetic: 133
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 10
  • Synthetic Lethality: 3
  • Synthetic Rescue: 5
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

RTG1 and RTG3 encode positive regulators of the retrograde (RTG) regulatory pathway, which responds to mitochondrial dysfunction and to growth on nitrogen sources requiring alpha-ketoglutarate for nitrogen assimilation. The RTG pathway provides for ammonium assimilation from poor nitrogen sources and a source of glutamate in the absence of mitochondrial function. Rtg1p and Rtg3p form a heterodimeric transcriptional activator whose nuclear localization is regulated in response to mitochondrial integrity and nitrogen availability. When nitrogen is available and mitochondria are functional, Rtg1p/Rtg3p resides in the cytoplasm. Reduction in mitochondrial function or depletion of nitrogen results in nuclear localization of Rtg1p/Rtg3p and subsequent activation of target genes. Regulation of the nuclear/cytoplasmic shuttling of Rtg1p/Rtg3p involves Mks1p, Rtg2p, and Bmh1p/Bmh2p. When phosphorylated, Mks1p forms an anchor complex with Bmh1p/Bmh2p that keeps Rtg1p/Rtg3p in the cytoplasm. Rtg2p regulates the subcellular location of the Rtg1p/Rtg3p heterodimer, and can relieve its cytoplasmic sequestration by competing for Bmh1p/Bmh2p binding to Mks1p.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.