ERG2 / YMR202W Overview
- Standard Name
- Systematic Name
- SGD ID
- Feature Type
C-8 sterol isomerase; catalyzes isomerization of delta-8 double bond to delta-7 position at an intermediate step in ergosterol biosynthesis; transcriptionally down-regulated when ergosterol is in excess; mutation is functionally complemented by human EBP
- Name Description
- ERGosterol biosynthesis
- Comparative Info
The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain
S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and
coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that
for other strains.
- ERG2 is on the right arm of chromosome XIII between RAD14 nucleotide excision repair protein and TOM40 translocase; coding sequence is 669 nucleotides long with 1 SNP that causes an Arg/Lys polymorphism at residue 77
Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.
- Erg2p is 222 amino acids long, of average half-life, and lower in abundance; phosphorylated on 2 serines
- Length (a.a.)
- Mol. Weight (Da)
- Isoelectric Point
- Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
- 4243 +/- 2141
- Half-life (hr)
Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.
Gene Ontology Details
GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three
Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies
Biological Process, and
Cellular Component), a reference, and an
evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the
literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view
all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.
- C-8 sterol isomerase involved in ergosterol biosynthesis; localizes to endoplasmic reticulum in high-throughput studies
View computational annotations
- Manually Curated
- Manually Curated
- Manually Curated
Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable
(e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background,
and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput
(e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and
additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and
evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.
- Non-essential gene; null mutant displays shortened replicative lifespan and sensitivity to metals, benomyl, and tacrolimus; conditional mutant shows reduced endocytosis; in large-scale studies, null mutant displays slower fermentative and respiratory growth, shorter telomeres, auxotrophy for myo-inositol, decreased resistance to osmotic stress, lower competitive fitness, and altered resistance to a variety of chemicals
Disease Annotations consist of three mandatory components: a gene product, a term from the
Disease Ontology (DO) controlled vocabulary and an
evidence code. SGD provides manually curated DO Annotations derived from the
literature. Click "Disease Details" to view all Disease information and evidence for this locus as well
as diseases it shares with other genes.
- ERG2 is homologous to human SIGMAR1, and has been used to study amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 16
Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical
or genetic interactions observed
between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the
interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a
reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction
annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.
- Erg2p interacts physically with proteins involved in lipid metabolism; ERG2 interacts genetically with genes involved in lipid metabolism
630 total interactions for 453 unique genes
- Affinity Capture-MS: 18
- Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
- Affinity Capture-Western: 1
- PCA: 8
- Negative Genetic: 354
- Phenotypic Enhancement: 10
- Phenotypic Suppression: 59
- Positive Genetic: 100
- Synthetic Growth Defect: 40
- Synthetic Lethality: 26
- Synthetic Rescue: 9
The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the
given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through
high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO
enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.
- ERG2 encodes a C-8 sterol isomerase that converts fecosterol to episterol in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Ergosterol, the major sterol in fungi and the equivalent of cholesterol in mammalian cells, is an essential component of the plasma membrane, necessary for membrane integrity, fluidity, and proper function of membrane proteins. The entire sterol biosynthetic pathway occurs primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and requires almost 30 enzymes. Activities of these enzymes have to be tightly controlled to ensure sufficient supply but also to prevent an excess accumulation of free sterols, which leads to toxicity. This regulation involves multiple mechanisms at transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Since sterol biosynthesis requires oxygen, under low-oxygen conditions sterol levels become low, which triggers relocation of two transcription factors, Upc2p and Ecm22p, to the nucleus. The two proteins then recognize and bind sterol regulatory elements (SRE) in the promoters of sterol biosynthesis genes and activate their transcription. Independently, oxygen levels affect transcription of sterol biosynthesis genes through a heme-dependent transcription factor Hap1p and a transcriptional repressor Rox1p. An excess of sterols, on the other hand, stimulates the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway to remove the HMG-CoA reductase Hmg1p/Hmg2p, which catalyzes an early rate-limiting step in sterol biosynthesis, thus leading to decreased sterol production. Additionally, other components of the ergosterol pathway are targeted for degradation by ERAD components Doa10p, Ubc7p and Cdc48p, and by another ER-associated degradation system that involves Asl1p, Asl2p and Asl3p. Despite some similarities, there are significant differences in sterol biosynthesis and its regulation between fungal and mammalian cells, which has made ergosterol biosynthesis an attractive target for antifungal drugs. Erg11p is a target of widely used azole drugs, whereas Erg1p is a target for terbinafine. Mutations in these genes are a major cause of antifungal drug resistance.
Expression data are derived from records contained in the
Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2
transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result
there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram
bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from
those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and
details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.
A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links
to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.
All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their
relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details"
to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.