ATP12 / YJL180C Overview

Standard Name
ATP12 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Assembly factor for F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; conserved protein; required for assembly of alpha and beta subunits into F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; human homolog ATPAF2 can complement yeast atp12 mutant; mutation of human homolog reduces active ATP synthase levels and is associated with the disorder ATPAF2 deficiency 2 3 4 5
Name Description
ATP synthase 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
3360 +/- 1649
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all ATP12 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Protein with a role in assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase complex; binds to the Atp1p subunit during assembly; localized to mitochondria

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated
Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutant has a severe respiratory growth defect, decreased rate of vegetative growth, decreased utilization of various carbon and nitrogen sources; null mutant has a reduced cell size, displays decreased resistance to heat, manganese, freeze-thaw and oxidative stress; null mutant is petite-negative, displays decreased mitophagy, decreased chronological lifespan, decreased glycogen accumulation, abnormal mitochondrial morphology, and elevated rates of mini-chromosome loss
Disease Details


Disease Annotations consist of three mandatory components: a gene product, a term from the Disease Ontology (DO) controlled vocabulary and an evidence code. SGD provides manually curated DO Annotations derived from the literature. Click "Disease Details" to view all Disease information and evidence for this locus as well as diseases it shares with other genes.

Yeast ATP12 is homologous to human ATPAF2, and has been used to study mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 1
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

219 total interactions for 163 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 23
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 7
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 2

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 155
  • Positive Genetic: 18
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 11
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

ATP12 encodes a chaperone involved in the assembly of the mitochondrial F1F0-ATP synthase complex, which produces ATP in the respiratory chain. The primary role of Atp12p is in the formation of the F1 sector via binding of the alpha subunit, Atp1p, preventing its self-aggregation and thus facilitating the formation of a heterodimer with the beta subunit, Atp2p, which is bound to its own chaperone, Atp11p. The assembly of the catalytic Atp1p-Atp2p dimers and then hexamers follows the release of the F1 subunits from their chaperones and requires the gamma subunit, Atp3p, which together with delta (Atp16p) and epsilon (Atp15p) subunits form the central stalk of the F1 sector. All these proteins are encoded in the nucleus and the assembly takes place in the mitochondrial matrix upon their import into mitochondria. Both chaperones, Atp11p and Atp12p, are essential for assembly of the F1 sector and, consequently, of the entire F1F0-ATP synthase, yet mechanisms that regulate their import and activity are not known. ATP12 is ubiquitous and conserved among all eukaryotes. Human homolog ATPAF2, which is able to complement atp12 mutation in yeast, has been implicated in mitochondrial complex V deficiency.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 2001-02-27

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.