SUM1 / YDR310C Overview

Standard Name
SUM1 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Transcriptional repressor that regulates middle-sporulation genes; required for mitotic repression of middle sporulation-specific genes; also acts as general replication initiation factor; involved in telomere maintenance, chromatin silencing; regulated by pachytene checkpoint 1 2 3 4 5 6
Name Description
SUppresor of Mar1-1 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
2527 +/- 806
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all SUM1 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Sequence-specific DNA binding transcriptional repressor; also binds replication origins; involved in chromatin silencing and negative regulation of transcription during the mitotic cell cycle; positively regulates DNA replication initiation; localizes to the nucleus

View computational annotations

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background.

Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

861 total interactions for 545 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 41
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 6
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 11
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Protein-RNA: 1
  • Proximity Label-MS: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 8

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Lethality: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 10
  • Negative Genetic: 478
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 97
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 14
  • Positive Genetic: 129
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 23
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 22
  • Synthetic Rescue: 17
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

SUM1 encodes a transcriptional repressor that is a member of the AT-hook family. Sum1p is a major player in the regulation of meiosis and sporulation, repressing meiotic-specific genes until the cell is committed to proceeding through meiosis, and essential for the pachytene checkpoint. One of its targets, NDT80, encodes a transcriptional activator that is central to establishing the commitment to meiosis. Other targets include middle sporulation genes, which are repressed during vegetative growth and early sporulation until their activation mid-way through the sporulation process. Sum1p binds to a subset of middle sporulation elements, MSEs, that are also recognized by the meiotic transcriptional activator Ndt80p; binding of Sum1p and Ndt80p is mutually exclusive. Sum1p binds to some target promoters independently, and at others, it forms a complex with the Hst1p histone deacetylase along with the bridging subunit Rfm1p. Sum1p also represses some non-meiotic targets such as genes involved in NAD+ biosynthesis. In complex with MATa1p, Sum1p represses mating type alpha-specific genes in mating type a cells. In addition to its role in transcription, the Sum1p-Rfm1p-Hst1p complex also binds to DNA replication origins to promote replication initiation. Sum1p repression is alleviated upon phosphorylation of Sum1p by several kinases.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.