AKR1 / YDR264C Overview

Standard Name
AKR1 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Palmitoyl transferase involved in protein palmitoylation; acts as a negative regulator of pheromone response pathway; required for endocytosis of pheromone receptors; involved in cell shape control; contains ankyrin repeats; AKR1 has a paralog, AKR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication; any of several human homologs encoding DHHC-type zinc fingers (ZDHHC) can complement temperature sensitivity of yeast akr1 null mutant 2 3 4
Name Description
AnKyrin Repeat containing 1
AKR2 4
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

AKR1 has a paralog, AKR2, that arose from the whole genome duplication
Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
4094 +/- 1070
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all AKR1 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Palmitoyltransferase involved in the regulation of mating and endocytosis; localizes to the Golgi; anchors sphinganine kinase LCB4 to membrane via palmitoylation

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated
Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutation causes reduced protein palmitoylation, abnormal cell morphology (enlarged cells and elongated buds), decreased sporulation and respiratory growth; in large-scale studies null mutant is haploinsufficient and shows decreased competitive fitness; overexpression results in slow growth
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

The akr1 null mutant is viable; the null mutant of paralog akr2 is viable; the akr1 akr2 double mutant has not been annotated for phenotype.

260 total interactions for 212 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 46
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 6
  • Biochemical Activity: 6
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Co-purification: 2
  • PCA: 23
  • Two-hybrid: 9

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 137
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 13
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 4
  • Synthetic Lethality: 3
  • Synthetic Rescue: 8
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

AKR1 encodes a palmitoyltransferase (protein S-acyl transferase) that covalently attaches a palmitoyl group to proteins via a thioester linkage to cysteine residues. Palmitoylation provides membrane tethering for multiple proteins, including proteins involved in signaling pathways, vesicular trafficking, amino acid transport, lipid metabolism, and many others. Akr1p has six ankyrin repeats within its N-terminal hydrophilic domain, six predicted transmembrane domains, and a DHHC cysteine-rich domain that is required for the enzymatic activity. Akr1p is itself palmitoylated; Akr1p molecules appear to palmitoylate each other and this modification increases the cellular levels of Akr1p. Genetic analysis has shown a role of Akr1p as a negative regulator of the pheromone response pathway. Activation of this pathway is triggered by binding of a-factor pheromone to Ste3p, a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) in the plasma membrane. This binding activates a heterotrimeric G-protein signaling that in turn activates a cascade of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Fus3p, that regulate the mating response. An essential step in this signaling pathway is recycling of the ligand-bound receptor Ste3p by endocytosis, which is triggered by phosphorylation of Ste3p by a type I casein kinase Yck2p. Yck2p, and its functionally redundant isoform Yck1p, are among the specific targets of Akr1p and therefore depend on Akr1p for their membrane localization. Thus, decreased function of Akr1p leads to defective recycling of Ste3p, increased activity of G-protein signaling and stimulation of the pheromone response pathway, even in the absence of mating pheromones.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.