STE12 / YHR084W Overview

Standard Name
STE12 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Transcription factor that is activated by a MAPK signaling cascade; activates genes involved in mating or pseudohyphal/invasive growth pathways; cooperates with Tec1p transcription factor to regulate genes specific for invasive growth 3 4
Name Description
STErile 2
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
2668 +/- 678
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all STE12 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

A sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor; activates transcription of genes involved in mating in response to pheromone and genes involved in filamentous growth in response to nutrient limitation; subunit of both the mating specific Ste12pDig1p-Dig2p complex and filamentous growth-induced Tec1p-Ste12p-Dig1p complex

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background.

Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; conditional mutants are sterile, impaired in pheromone production and detection, and in shmoo formation; null mutants cannot undergo pseudohyphal growth or ethanol-induced hyperfilamentation; overexpression slows growth, enhances pseudohyphal growth
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

202 total interactions for 115 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 51
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 7
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 14
  • Biochemical Activity: 4
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-fractionation: 1
  • FRET: 1
  • PCA: 2
  • Reconstituted Complex: 18
  • Two-hybrid: 13

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Rescue: 23
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 6
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 41
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 8
  • Synthetic Lethality: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 10
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

STE12 encodes a helix-turn-helix transcription factor of the homeodomain family. Ste12p recognizes the pheromone-responsive element (PRE), containing the consensus sequence 5'-TGAAACA-3', and regulates genes involved in vegetative adhesion and mating. Ste12p can also bind centromeres, and regulates the activity of the Cbf1p transcription factor, which is involved in methionine biosynthesis and is itself a constitutive centromere protein. Ste12p is required for mating in haploids, and filamentous growth in diploids. Dig1p and Dig2p function in discrimination of these two pathways by regulatng the binding activity of Ste12p to mating and filamentation promoters. Ste12p and Tec1p can physically interact and are a model for studying the mechanisms of combinatorial and promoter-specific target gene control. The association of a PRE and a TEA/ATTS consensus sequence (TCS; 5'-RCATTCCY-3'), which is recognized by Tec1p, has been designated a filamentous responsive element (FRE) and allows binding of a Ste12p-Tec1p heterodimer to activate expression of genes involved in filamentation. Ste12p-Tec1p heterodimers can also regulate target genes via single TCS elements, with Tec1p providing the DNA binding and Ste12p the transcriptional activation. During vegetative growth, Dig1p and Dig2p directly inhibit the transcriptional activity of Ste12p and of the Ste12p-Tec1p heterodimer. In response to mating pheromone, the inhibitory functions of Dig1p and Dig2p are relieved by phosphorylation through the mating-specific MAPKs Fus3p and Kss1p, allowing the maximal activation of Ste12p target genes, such as the sexual agglutinin genes or FIG2 cell wall adhesin.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 1999-03-23

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.