ADK1 / YDR226W Overview

Standard Name
ADK1 1
Systematic Name
AKY1 , AKY2 7 8
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Adenylate kinase, required for purine metabolism; controls ATP homeostasis; localized to the cytoplasm and the mitochondria; lacks cleavable signal sequence; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress; mutations affecting Adk1p catalytic activity deregulate expression of phosphate utilization genes PHO5 and PHO84; human homolog AK1 can complement yeast adk1 mutant 1 2 3 4 5 6
Name Description
ADenylate Kinase 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Lacks cleavable signal sequence; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress
Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
56107 +/- 23955
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all ADK1 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Adenylate kinase that transfers phosphate from ATP to AMP; involved in the initiation of DNA-dependent DNA replication; localizes to both the cytoplasm and mitochondrial intermembrane space

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutant displays slow growth and inability to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources (glycerol, lactate); also shows depleted pool of ADP and ATP, increased accumulation of ethanol and glycerol, inositol auxotrophy and delayed progression through G1 phase of the cell cycle
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

130 total interactions for 123 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 51
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 10
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 1
  • Biochemical Activity: 7
  • Co-purification: 1
  • PCA: 3
  • Protein-peptide: 3

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 39
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 11
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

ADK1 encodes adenylate kinase that is a key enzyme in adenine nucleotide biosynthesis and in energy metabolism. Adk1p transfers a phosphate group from ATP to AMP to yield two ADP molecules. The enzyme is localized in both the cytoplasm and the mitochondria. The ADK1 gene is constitutively expressed, but the protein abundance has been shown to increase under a DNA replication stress. Inactivation of Adk1p results in strong transcriptional induction of genes involved in phosphate utilization (PHO genes) and in 'de novo' biosynthesis of AMP (ADE genes), suggesting a coordinated regulation of the phosphate assimilation and purine nucleotide synthesis pathways. The exact mechanism and the role of Adk1p in this regulation system are not known, but it is likely that Adk1p activity impacts the availability of adenylic nucleotides, which provides a metabolic signal to coordinate the transcriptional response of the two pathways. Ectopic expression of human homolog AK1 restores this regulation in yeast adk1 mutants.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.