ARD1 / YHR013C Overview

Standard Name
ARD1 1
Systematic Name
NAA10 16
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase NatA; NatA comprises Nat1p, Ard1p, Nat5p; acetylates many proteins to influence telomeric silencing, cell cycle, heat-shock resistance, mating, sporulation, early stages of mitophagy; protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress; mutations in human homolog X-linked NAA10 lead to Ogden syndrome (S37P) and intellectual disability (R116W); expression of human NAA10 and NAA15 can complement ard1 nat1 double mutant 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Name Description
ARrest Defective 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Protein abundance increases under DNA replication stress
Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
5599 +/- 1203
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results.

View all ARD1 alleles in SGD search

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Subunit of protein N-terminal acetyltransferase (NatA) complex; contributes to the transfer of acetyl groups to N-terminal Ser, Ala, Gly, or Thr residues of proteins; NatA complex colocolizes with cytosolic ribosomes

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background.

Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutant displays decreased pheromone sensitivity, reduced mating efficiency and sporulation, decreased respiratory growth; increased heat sensitivity and decreased innate thermotolerance; null mutation also decreases survival rate in stationary phase
Disease Details


Disease Annotations consist of three mandatory components: a gene product, a term from the Disease Ontology (DO) controlled vocabulary and an evidence code. SGD provides manually curated DO Annotations derived from the literature. Click "Disease Details" to view all Disease information and evidence for this locus as well as diseases it shares with other genes.

Yeast ARD1 is homologous to human NAA10, and has been used to study Ogden syndrome

Manually Curated

Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

495 total interactions for 378 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 89
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 6
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 12
  • Co-fractionation: 2
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Co-purification: 1

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 95
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 37
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 215
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 24
  • Synthetic Rescue: 7
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

ARD1 encodes a catalytic subunit of a protein N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT). The enzymatic reaction involves transferring an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to N-terminal residues of nascent polypeptides. It is one of the most frequent protein modifications in eukaryotes, affecting about 57% of yeast proteins and 84% of human proteins. There are three major NATs in yeast, NatA, NatB and NatC, that differ in their substrate specificities. Ard1p and an auxiliary subunit Nat1p are components of NatA, whose function is to acetylate penultimate Ser, Ala, Gly, Thr, Val or Cys residues left after removal of the N-terminal methionine by aminopeptidases Map1p or Map2p. NatA is associated with ribosomes, consistent with the process of N-terminal acetylation occurring cotranslationally. The auxiliary subunit Nat1p serves as an anchor to the ribosome. Both ARD1 and NAT1 have been implicated in control of growth rate, silencing at the silent mating type locus HML and in entry into the G0 growth phase. Some of these processes may be associated with silencing proteins Sir3p and Orc3p that are targets of NatA. Since the ubiquitin-dependent protein turnover requires access to a free alpha-amino group at the N terminus, blocking the N-terminal residues by acetylation may be a contributing factor in protecting the modified proteins, such as Sir3p and Orc1p, from proteolytic degradation. Both components of NatA are conserved from yeast to humans and human orthologs, NAA10 and NAA15, can complement yeast ard1 and nat1 mutations. In humans, NatA activity has been associated with vascular, hematopoietic and neuronal growth, development and cancer progression.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 1999-12-31

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.