Reference: Barney JB, et al. (2021) Drug resistance in diploid yeast is acquired through dominant alleles, haploinsufficiency, gene duplication and aneuploidy. PLoS Genet 17(9):e1009800

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Abstract


Previous studies of adaptation to the glucose analog, 2-deoxyglucose, by Saccharomyces cerevisiae have utilized haploid cells. In this study, diploid cells were used in the hope of identifying the distinct genetic mechanisms used by diploid cells to acquire drug resistance. While haploid cells acquire resistance to 2-deoxyglucose primarily through recessive alleles in specific genes, diploid cells acquire resistance through dominant alleles, haploinsufficiency, gene duplication and aneuploidy. Dominant-acting, missense alleles in all three subunits of yeast AMP-activated protein kinase confer resistance to 2-deoxyglucose. Dominant-acting, nonsense alleles in the REG1 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of AMP-activated protein kinase, confer 2-deoxyglucose resistance through haploinsufficiency. Most of the resistant strains isolated in this study achieved resistance through aneuploidy. Cells with a monosomy of chromosome 4 are resistant to 2-deoxyglucose. While this genetic strategy comes with a severe fitness cost, it has the advantage of being readily reversible when 2-deoxyglucose selection is lifted. Increased expression of the two DOG phosphatase genes on chromosome 8 confers resistance and was achieved through trisomies and tetrasomies of that chromosome. Finally, resistance was also mediated by increased expression of hexose transporters, achieved by duplication of a 117 kb region of chromosome 4 that included the HXT3, HXT6 and HXT7 genes. The frequent use of aneuploidy as a genetic strategy for drug resistance in diploid yeast and human tumors may be in part due to its potential for reversibility when selection pressure shifts.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Authors
Barney JB, Chandrashekarappa DG, Soncini SR, Schmidt MC
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