Reference: Hailemariam S, et al. (2019) The telomere-binding protein Rif2 and ATP-bound Rad50 have opposing roles in the activation of yeast Tel1(ATM) kinase. J Biol Chem 294(49):18846-18852

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Abstract


Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tel1 is the ortholog of human ATM kinase and initiates a cell cycle checkpoint in response to dsDNA breaks (DSBs). Tel1(ATM) kinase is activated synergistically by naked dsDNA and the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2(NBS1) complex (MRX). A multisubunit protein complex, which is related to human shelterin, protects telomeres from being recognized as DSBs, thereby preventing a Tel1(ATM) checkpoint response. However, at very short telomeres, Tel1(ATM) can be recruited and activated by the MRX complex, resulting in telomere elongation. Conversely, at long telomeres, Rap1-interacting-factor 2 (Rif2) is instrumental in suppressing Tel1 activity. Here, using an in vitro reconstituted Tel1 kinase activation assay, we show that Rif2 inhibits MRX-dependent Tel1 kinase activity. Rif2 discharges the ATP-bound form of Rad50, which is essential for all MRX-dependent activities. This conclusion is further strengthened by experiments with a Rad50 allosteric ATPase mutant that maps outside the conserved ATP binding pocket. We propose a model in which Rif2 attenuates Tel1 activity at telomeres by acting directly on Rad50 and discharging its activated ATP-bound state, thereby rendering the MRX complex incompetent for Tel1 activation. These findings expand our understanding of the mechanism by which Rif2 controls telomere length.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural | Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Authors
Hailemariam S, De Bona P, Galletto R, Hohl M, Petrini JH, Burgers PM
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