Reference: Litchfield DW (2003) Protein kinase CK2: structure, regulation and role in cellular decisions of life and death. Biochem J 369(Pt 1):1-15

Reference Help

Abstract


Protein kinase CK2 ('casein kinase II') has traditionally been classified as a messenger-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is typically found in tetrameric complexes consisting of two catalytic (alpha and/or alpha') subunits and two regulatory beta subunits. Accumulated biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that CK2 has a vast array of candidate physiological targets and participates in a complex series of cellular functions, including the maintenance of cell viability. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and enzymic features of CK2, and discusses advances that challenge traditional views of this enzyme. For example, the recent demonstrations that individual CK2 subunits exist outside tetrameric complexes and that CK2 displays dual-specificity kinase activity raises new prospects for the precise elucidation of its regulation and cellular functions. This review also discusses a number of the mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of CK2 in cells, and will highlight emerging insights into the role of CK2 in cellular decisions of life and death. In this latter respect, recent evidence suggests that CK2 can exert an anti-apoptotic role by protecting regulatory proteins from caspase-mediated degradation. The mechanistic basis of the observation that CK2 is essential for viability may reside in part in this ability to protect cellular proteins from caspase action. Furthermore, this anti-apoptotic function of CK2 may contribute to its ability to participate in transformation and tumorigenesis.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't | Review
Authors
Litchfield DW
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Qualifier Gene Ontology Term Aspect Annotation Extension Evidence Method Source Assigned On Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Disease Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Disease Ontology Term Qualifier Evidence Method Source Assigned On Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Direction Regulation Of Happens During Method Evidence

Post-translational Modifications


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through its pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Site Modification Modifier Reference

Interaction Annotations


Genetic Interactions

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Allele Assay Annotation Action Phenotype SGA score P-value Source Reference

Physical Interactions

Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Assay Annotation Action Modification Source Reference

Functional Complementation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through its pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Species Gene ID Strain background Direction Details Source Reference