Reference: Schneider C and Tollervey D (2013) Threading the barrel of the RNA exosome. Trends Biochem Sci 38(10):485-93

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Abstract


In eukaryotes, the exosome complex degrades RNA backbones and plays key roles in RNA processing and surveillance. It was predicted that RNA substrates are threaded through a central channel. This pathway is conserved between eukaryotic and archaeal complexes, even though nuclease activity was lost from the nine-subunit eukaryotic core (EXO-9) and transferred to associated proteins. The exosome cooperates with nuclear and cytoplasmic cofactors, including RNA helicases Mtr4 and Ski2, respectively. Structures of an RNA-bound exosome and both helicases revealed how substrates are channeled through EXO-9 to the associated nuclease Rrp44. Recent high-throughput analyses provided fresh insights relating exosome structure to its diverse in vivo functions. They also revealed surprisingly high degradation rates for newly synthesized RNAs, particularly RNA polymerase III transcripts.

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Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't | Review
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Schneider C, Tollervey D
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