Reference: Zhu S, et al. (2016) Toxicological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The uptake kinetics and mechanisms and the toxic responses. J Hazard Mater 318:650-662

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Abstract


Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an experimental model, the potential toxicological effects of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were investigated following exposure to 0-600mg/L for 24h. Results indicated that MWCNTs (>100mg/L) had adverse effects on the cell proliferation. MWCNTs were clearly visible in lysosome, vacuole, endosome, mitochondria, multivesicular body and localization in the perinuclear region. The uptake kinetics data demonstrated that the maximum MWCNTs content (209.61mg/g) was reached at 3h, and a steady state was reached after 18h. Based on the combined results of transmission electron microscope, endocytosis inhibition experiments and endocytosis-related genes (END3, END6, Sla2 and Rsp5) expression analysis, we elucidated MWCNTs uptake mechanism: (i) via a direct penetration of single MWCNTs; (ii) via endocytosis of single MWCNTs; and (iii) via endocytosis of MWCNTs aggregates. The percentage of apoptosis was significant increased at 600mg/L. The decrease of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c shown dose-dependent manners. Interestingly, there was no significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The apoptosis-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, Yca1, Nma111 and Nuc1) were significant changed. These results obtained in our study demonstrated that oxidized MWCNTs induce Saccharomyces cerevisiae apoptosis via mitochondrial impairment pathway.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Zhu S, Zhu B, Huang A, Hu Y, Wang G, Ling F
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