AGC1 / YPR021C Overview

Standard Name
AGC1 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Mitochondrial amino acid transporter; acts both as a glutamate uniporter and as an aspartate-glutamate exchanger; involved in nitrogen metabolism and nitrogen compound biosynthesis; human homolog SLC25A13 complements yeast null mutant 1 2 3 4
Name Description
Aspartate-Glutamate Carrier 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
376 +/- 189
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results.

View all AGC1 alleles in SGD search

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Transporter protein that moves aspartate and glutamate across membranes; involved in synthesis of nitrogen-containing compounds; localizes to mitochondrial inner membrane and vacuole-mitochondrion membrane contact site

View computational annotations

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated
Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-esseential gene; null mutants have abnormal vacuolar morphology, decreased competitive fitness, and are impaired in respiratory growth; heterozygous diploid nulls are haploinsufficient, and sensitive to salt and various antifungals; overexpression slows vegetative growth in S288C, increases invasive growth in Sigma1278b
Disease Details


Disease Annotations consist of three mandatory components: a gene product, a term from the Disease Ontology (DO) controlled vocabulary and an evidence code. SGD provides manually curated DO Annotations derived from the literature. Click "Disease Details" to view all Disease information and evidence for this locus as well as diseases it shares with other genes.

Yeast AGC1 is homologous to human SLC25A12 and SLC25A13, and has been used to study intrahepatic cholestasis, common bile duct disease, and citrullinemia
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

115 total interactions for 111 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 3
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 6
  • Co-localization: 1
  • PCA: 2

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Lethality: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 72
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 2
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 3
  • Positive Genetic: 16
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 6
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

AGC1 encodes a mitochondrial amino acid transporter that plays a dual role in mitochondrial metabolism. As a glutamate uniporter Agc1p supplies the mitochondria with glutamate, which is a substrate for nitrogen metabolism, in particular the biosynthesis of ornithine. As an aspartate-glutamate exchanger Agc1p plays a key role in the malate-aspartate redox shuttle, which is an NADH shuttle transporting reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix and is essential for utilization of acetate or fatty acids as carbon sources. The regulation of the two functions of Agc1p is not known. There are two human orthologs, aralar1 and citrin, encoded by SLC25A12 and SLC25A13, respectively, which contain N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding motifs and are known to be regulated by calcium. Agc1p has a 600 amino acid long extension at its N-terminus, but it does not have any discernible calcium-responsive motifs. The N-terminal extension may have a role in regulation through interactions with other proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Mutations in human citrin are implicated in type II citrullinemia and both human AGC isoforms can complement yeast agc1 mutant.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 2007-06-21

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.