YTA12 / YMR089C Overview

Standard Name
YTA12 1
Systematic Name
RCA1 6
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Mitochondrial inner membrane m-AAA protease component; mediates degradation of misfolded or unassembled proteins; also required for correct assembly of mitochondrial enzyme complexes; overexpression of human AFG3L2 complements respiratory defect of yeast afg3 yta12 double null mutation, but overexpression of disease-associated AFG3L2 variants does not; expression of both human SPG7 (paraplegin) and AFG3L2 complements yeast yta12 afg3 double mutation 2 3 4 5
Name Description
Yeast Tat-binding Analog 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
4411 +/- 1359
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all YTA12 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

ATPase and metallopeptidase of the inner mitochondrial membrane; subunit of the m-AAA complex involved in mitochondrial protein turnover and processing of proteins imported into mitochondria

View computational annotations

Molecular Function

Manually Curated

Biological Process

Manually Curated

Cellular Component

Manually Curated


Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. These annotations have been derived from physical molecular interaction evidence extracted from the literature and cross-referenced in the entry, or by curator inference from information on homologs in closely related species or by inference from scientific background.

Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutant fails to respire and accumulates less cardiolipin and PE in mitochondria; homozygous null mutant has shorter chronological lifespan; in large-scale studies, null mutant has reduced competitive fitness in a variety of media; null mutant displays sensitivity to heat and ethanol, mitochondrial genome instability, and increased chitin deposition
Disease Details


Disease Annotations consist of three mandatory components: a gene product, a term from the Disease Ontology (DO) controlled vocabulary and an evidence code. SGD provides manually curated DO Annotations derived from the literature. Click "Disease Details" to view all Disease information and evidence for this locus as well as diseases it shares with other genes.

Yeast YTA12 is homologous to human AFG3L2 and SPG7, and has been used to study spinocerebellar ataxia type 28, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and hereditary optic atrophy
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

266 total interactions for 208 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 39
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 8
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 7
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-purification: 1
  • Proximity Label-MS: 3
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Lethality: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 3
  • Negative Genetic: 153
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 2
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 28
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 10
  • Synthetic Lethality: 5
  • Synthetic Rescue: 2
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

YTA12 encodes a mitochondrial ATP-dependent metallopeptidase. Yta12p forms a heterooligomeric protein complex with Afg3p called the m-AAA protease complex, which is composed of multiple copies of Afg3p and Yta12p and localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. The m-AAA complex mediates the turnover of misfolded and nonassembled polypeptides, acting as a quality control system that ensures proper folding and functionality of protein complexes embedded in the mitochondrial membrane and, therefore, is essential for respiratory competence. The m-AAA complex is also required for processing of the the mitochondrial ribosomal protein MrpL32p, indicating that Afg3p and Yta12p play a role in regulation of mitochondrial translation. Human homologs of AFG3 and YTA12, AFG3L2 and SPG7 (paraplegin), respectively, are implicated in etiology of spinocerebellar ataxias and the expression of both human SPG7 and AFG3L2 complements yeast yta12 afg3 double mutation.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.