MSN2 / YMR037C Overview

Standard Name
MSN2 1
Systematic Name
Feature Type
ORF , Verified
Stress-responsive transcriptional activator; activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization in response to various stress conditions; binds DNA at stress response elements of responsive genes; light sensing pathway component that accumulates in the nucleus in response to blue light; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Name Description
Multicopy suppressor of SNF1 mutation 1
Comparative Info
Sequence Details


The S. cerevisiae Reference Genome sequence is derived from laboratory strain S288C. Download DNA or protein sequence, view genomic context and coordinates. Click "Sequence Details" to view all sequence information for this locus, including that for other strains.

MSN2 is located on the right arm of chromosome XIII between MIH1 tyrosine phosphatase and CCS1 copper chaperone; coding sequence is 2115 nucleotides long with 23 SNPs and an in-frame GAT insertion in FL100 that inserts Asp after residue 276
Protein Details


Basic sequence-derived (length, molecular weight, isoelectric point) and experimentally-determined (median abundance, median absolute deviation) protein information. Click "Protein Details" for further information about the protein such as half-life, abundance, domains, domains shared with other proteins, protein sequence retrieval for various strains, physico-chemical properties, protein modification sites, and external identifiers for the protein.

Msn2p is 704 amino acids long, somewhat short-lived, low in abundance; contains 2 zinc fingers; phosphorylated on 22 residues; relative distribution to nucleus increases upon DNA replication stress
Length (a.a.)
Mol. Weight (Da)
Isoelectric Point
Median Abundance (molecules/cell)
2327 +/- 566
Half-life (hr)


Curated mutant alleles for the specified gene, listed alphabetically. Click on the allele name to open the allele page. Click "SGD search" to view all alleles in search results. Click "YeastMine" to view all alleles in YeastMine.

View all MSN2 alleles in SGD search | YeastMine

Gene Ontology Details

Gene Ontology

GO Annotations consist of four mandatory components: a gene product, a term from one of the three Gene Ontology (GO) controlled vocabularies (Molecular Function, Biological Process, and Cellular Component), a reference, and an evidence code. SGD has manually curated and high-throughput GO Annotations, both derived from the literature, as well as computational, or predicted, annotations. Click "Gene Ontology Details" to view all GO information and evidence for this locus as well as biological processes it shares with other genes.

Sequence-specific DNA-binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor involved in the regulation of transcription in response to a wide variety of stresses; shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm

View computational annotations

Cellular Component

Manually Curated
Phenotype Details


Phenotype annotations for a gene are curated single mutant phenotypes that require an observable (e.g., "cell shape"), a qualifier (e.g., "abnormal"), a mutant type (e.g., null), strain background, and a reference. In addition, annotations are classified as classical genetics or high-throughput (e.g., large scale survey, systematic mutation set). Whenever possible, allele information and additional details are provided. Click "Phenotype Details" to view all phenotype annotations and evidence for this locus as well as phenotypes it shares with other genes.

Non-essential gene; null mutants exhibit slow growth, abnormal vacuolar morphology, decreased dessication and freeze-thaw resistance, decreased lifespan; heterozygous diploid null is haploinsufficient, sensitive to starvation and oxidative stress; overexpression slows growth, increases trehalose accumulation, freeze-thaw resistance, and ethanol tolerance
Interaction Details


Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. An interaction annotation is composed of the interaction type, name of the interactor, assay type (e.g., Two-Hybrid), annotation type (e.g., manual or high-throughput), and a reference, as well as other experimental details. Click "Interaction Details" to view all interaction annotations and evidence for this locus, including an interaction visualization.

Msn2p interacts physically with proteins involved in transcription; MSN2 interacts genetically with genes involved in transcription; the msn2 null mutant is viable, the null mutant of paralog msn4 is viable, the msn2 msn4 double mutant is viable with some carbon utilization defects

312 total interactions for 194 unique genes

Physical Interactions

  • Affinity Capture-MS: 20
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 4
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 5
  • Biochemical Activity: 8
  • Co-localization: 3
  • Co-purification: 1
  • PCA: 2
  • Reconstituted Complex: 2
  • Two-hybrid: 4

Genetic Interactions

  • Dosage Growth Defect: 3
  • Dosage Lethality: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 18
  • Negative Genetic: 138
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 38
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 25
  • Positive Genetic: 11
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 16
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 10
Regulation Details


The number of putative Regulators (genes that regulate it) and Targets (genes it regulates) for the given locus, based on experimental evidence. This evidence includes data generated through high-throughput techniques. Click "Regulation Details" to view all regulation annotations, shared GO enrichment among regulation Targets, and a regulator/target diagram for the locus.

MSN2 and MSN4 encode paralogous zinc finger transcription factors that regulate the general stress response. Msn2p and Msn4p regulate the expression of ~200 genes in response to several stresses, including heat shock, osmotic shock, oxidative stress, low pH, glucose starvation, sorbic acid and high ethanol concentrations, by binding to the stress response element (STRE), 5'-CCCCT-3', located in their promoters. MSN2 expression is constitutive. Msn2p and Msn4p are largely functionally redundant but there is evidence that the individual regulatory contributions of these transcription factors differ for specific genes and under particular stress conditions. In their N-terminal halves, Msn2/4p contain transcription-activating domains and a nuclear export sequence. At the C-terminus, both proteins contain a zinc-finger binding domain that recognizes the STRE element. DNA binding by Msn2p is thought to be regulated by stress and by the kinases cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA, composed of Tpk1p, Tpk2p, and Tpk3p and regulatory subunit Bcy1p) and Gsk3p. Adjacent to the zinc-finger, Msn2p and Msn4p each contain a nuclear localization signal, which is inhibited by PKA phosphorylation and activated by protein phosphatase 1 dephosphorylation. Under non-stress conditions, Msn2p and Msn4p are located in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic localization is partially regulated by TOR signalling with the 14-3-3 protein Bmh2p acting as a cytoplasmic anchoring partner for Msn2/4p. Upon stress, Msn2/4p are hyperphosphorylated, relocalized to the nucleus and then display a periodic nucleocytoplasmic shuttling behavior. Nuclear export of Msn2p is dependent on the exportin Msn5p and nuclear localization at both the import and export level is regulated by PKA. Msn2p is also positively regulated by the Psr1p/Whi2p phosphatase complex and negatively regulated by Snf1p phosphorylation and by its degradation in the nucleus, a process dependent on the cyclin-dependent kinase Ssn3p.
Expression Details


Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and are first log2 transformed and normalized. Referenced datasets may contain one or more condition(s), and as a result there may be a greater number of conditions than datasets represented in a single clickable histogram bar. The histogram division at 0.0 separates the down-regulated (green) conditions and datasets from those that are up-regulated (red). Click "Expression Details" to view all expression annotations and details for this locus, including a visualization of genes that share a similar expression pattern.

Summary Paragraph

A summary of the locus, written by SGD Biocurators following a thorough review of the literature. Links to gene names and curated GO terms are included within the Summary Paragraphs.

Last Updated: 2007-01-17

Literature Details


All manually curated literature for the specified gene, organized into topics according to their relevance to the gene (Primary Literature, Additional Literature, or Review). Click "Literature Details" to view all literature information for this locus, including shared literature between genes.