June 10, 2015
Yeast and humans diverged about a billion years ago. So if there’s still enough functional conservation between a pair of similar yeast and human genes that they can be substituted for each other, we know they must be critically important for life. An added bonus is that if a human protein works in yeast, all of the awesome power of yeast genetics and molecular biology can be used to study it.
To make it easier for researchers to identify these “swappable” yeast and human genes, we’ve started collecting functional complementation data in SGD. The data are all curated from the published literature, via two sources. One set of papers was curated at SGD, including the recent systematic study of functional complementation by Kachroo and colleagues. Another set was curated by Princeton Protein Orthology Database (P-POD) staff and is incorporated into SGD with their generous permission.
As a starting point, we’ve collected a relatively simple set of data: the yeast and human genes involved in a functional complementation relationship, with their respective identifiers; the direction of complementation (human gene complements yeast mutation, or vice versa); the source of curation (SGD or P-POD); the PubMed ID of the reference; and an optional free-text note adding more details. In the future we’ll incorporate more information, such as the disease involvement of the human protein and the sequence differences found in disease-associated alleles that fail to complement the yeast mutation.
You can access these data in two ways: using two new templates in YeastMine, our data warehouse; or via our Download page. Please take a look, let us know what you think, and point us to any published data that’s missing. We always appreciate your feedback!
YeastMine is a versatile tool that lets you customize searches and create and manipulate lists of search results. To help you get started with YeastMine we’ve created a series of short video tutorials explaining its features.
This template lets you query with a yeast gene or list of genes (either your own custom list, or a pre-made gene list) and retrieve the human gene(s) involved in cross-species complementation along with all of the data listed above.
This template takes either human gene names (HGNC-approved symbols) or Entrez Gene IDs for human genes and returns the yeast gene(s) involved in cross-species complementation, along with the data listed above. You can run the query using a single human gene as input, or create a custom list of human genes in YeastMine for the query. We’ve created two new pre-made lists of human genes that can also be used with this template. The list “Human genes complementing or complemented by yeast genes” includes only human genes that are currently included in the functional complementation data, while the list “Human genes with yeast homologs” includes all human genes that have a yeast homolog as predicted by any of several methods.
If you’d prefer to have all the data in one file, simply visit our Curated Data download page and download the file “functional_complementation.tab”.
February 23, 2015
SGD curators periodically update the chromosomal annotations of the S. cerevisiae Reference Genome, which is derived from strain S288C. Last November, the genome annotation was updated for the first time since the release of the major S288C resequencing update in February 2011. Note that the underlying sequence of 16 assembled nuclear chromosomes, plus the mitochondrial genome, remained unchanged in annotation release R64.2.1 (relative to genome sequence release R64.1.1).
The R64.2.1 annotation release included various updates and additions. The annotations of 2 existing proteins changed (GRX3/YDR098C and HOP2/YGL033W), and 1 new ORF (RDT1/YCL054W-A) and 4 RNAs (RME2, RME3, IRT1, ZOD1) were added to the genome annotation. Other additions include 8 nuclear matrix attachment sites, and 8 mitochondrial origins of replication. The coordinates of many autonomously replicating sequences (ARS) were updated, and many new ARS consensus sequences were added. Complete details can be found in the Summary of Chromosome Sequence and Annotation Updates.
December 17, 2014
Have you ever wondered what’s happening to your favorite protein as it’s hanging out in the cell? SGD’s advanced search tool, YeastMine, now includes four new templates that can be used to find protein modification and abundance data.
The Gene -> Protein Modifications template retrieves phosphorylation, ubiquitination, succinylation, acetylation and methylation data, currently curated from the following 11 publications: Peng et al. 2003, Hitchcock et al. 2003, Seyfried et al. 2008, Vogtle et al. 2009, Ziv et al. 2011, Mommen et al. 2012, Henriksen et al. 2012, Swaney et al. 2013, Kolawa et al. 2013, Weinert et al. 2013, and Wang et al. 2014.
The Gene -> Experimental N-termini and N-terminal modifications template retrieves experimentally-determined amino-terminal sequence and acetylation data, currently curated from Vogtle et al. 2009 and Mommen et al. 2012.
Lastly, two new templates pull protein abundance data curated from Ghaemmaghami et al. 2003. Gene -> Protein Abundance retrieves molecules/cell counts for a gene or list of genes. The same data can be quickly filtered using the Retrieve -> Proteins in a given molecules/cell abundance range template.
Please explore these new YeastMine protein data templates, and send us your feedback.
December 08, 2014
At SGD, we are expanding our scope to provide annotation and comparative analyses of all major budding yeast strains, and are making progress in our move toward providing multiple reference genomes. To this end, the following new S. cerevisiae genomes have been incorporated into SGD as “Alternative References”: CEN.PK, D273-10B, FL100, JK9-3d, RM11-1a, SEY6210, SK1, Sigma1278b, W303, X2180-1A, Y55. These genomes are accessible via Sequence, Strain, and Contig pages, and are the genomes for which we have curated the most phenotype data, and for which we aim to curate specific functional information. It is important to emphasize that we are not abandoning a standard sequence; S288C is still in place as “The Reference Genome”. However, we do recognize that it is helpful for students and researchers to be able to ‘shift the reference’, selecting the genome that is most appropriate and informative for a specific area of study.
These new genome sequences have been also been added to SGD’s BLAST datasets, multiple sequence alignments, the Pattern Matching tool, and the Downloads site. Please explore these new genomes, and send us your feedback.
October 13, 2014
We are pleased to announce that the redesign of our gene-specific pages, which has been ongoing over the past year, is now complete with the release of the reworked Locus Summary page. The page contains all of the information on the previous Locus Summary page, and has a more modern look and feel. Note that the order and organization of the sections has changed, and the order of the tabs across the top of the page has changed as well. New elements on the page include a navigation bar on the left to take you to the different sections of the page, a redesigned map showing genomic context in the sequence section, and a new interactive histogram summarizing expression data. Biochemical pathway information now appears in its own section (see an example), and we have added a History section to replace the previous Locus History tab. If there are no data of a particular type (for example, Pathways), then that section is absent from the page.
Please explore this new page and send us your feedback.
October 06, 2014
The Expression pages have been redesigned and now include a clickable histogram depicting conditions and datasets in which the gene of interest is up- or down-regulated. Expression data are derived from records contained in the Gene Expression Omnibus, and datasets are assigned one or more categories to facilitate grouping, filtering and browsing. Short descriptions of the focus of each experiment are also provided. The PCL files generated for each dataset are used to populate the expression analysis tool SPELL. Also included on the pages are network diagrams which display genes that share expression profiles. The Expression pages provide seamless access to the SPELL tool at SGD, as well as external resources such as Cyclebase, GermOnline, YMGV and FuncBase.
Please explore these new pages, accessible via the Expression tab on your favorite Locus Summary page, and send us your feedback.
September 15, 2014
Have you ever wondered about the role played by the homolog of a particular yeast gene in other fungal species? SGD’s advanced search tool, YeastMine, can now be used to find homologs of your favorite Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes in the pathogenic yeast, Candida glabrata. There are now 25 species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi in YeastMine, including S. cerevisiae.
The fungal homologs of a given S. cerevisiae gene can be found using the template called “Gene –> Fungal Homologs.” Fungal homology data comes from various sources including FungiDB, the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), the Yeast Gene Order Browser (YGOB), the Candida Genome Database (CGD), the Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD) and PomBase, and the results link directly to the corresponding homolog gene pages in the relevant databases.
A results table is generated after each query and the identifiers and standard names for the fungal homologs are listed in the table. As with other YeastMine templates, results can be saved as lists for further analysis. You can also create a list of yeast gene names and/or identifiers using the updated Create Lists feature that allows you to specify the organism representing the genes in your list. The query for homologs can then be made against the custom gene list.
All of the new templates that query fungal homolog data can be found on the YeastMine Home page under the “Homology” tab. This template complements the template “Gene → Non-Fungal and S. cerevisiae Homologs” that retrieves homologs of S. cerevisiae genes in humans, rats, mice, worms, flies, mosquitos, and zebrafish.
August 25, 2014
New Sequence pages are now available in SGD for virtually every yeast gene (e.g., HMRA1 Sequence page), and include genomic sequence annotations for the Reference Strain S288C, as well as several Alternative Reference Genomes from strains such as CEN.PK, RM11-1a, Sigma1278b, and W303 (more Alternative References coming soon). Each page includes an Overview section containing descriptive information, maps depicting genomic context in Reference Strain S288C (as shown below) and Alternative Reference strains, as well as chromosomal and relative coordinates in S288C.
The sequence itself includes display options for genomic DNA, coding DNA, or translated protein.
Also available on each Sequence page are links to redesigned S288C Chromosome pages, links to new Contig pages for Alternative Reference Genomes, and a Downloads menu for easy access to DNA sequences of several other industrial strains and environmental isolates. The new Sequence, Chromosome, and Contig pages make use of many of the features you enjoy on other new or redesigned pages at SGD, including graphical display of data, sortable tables, and responsive visualizations. The Sequence pages also provide seamless access to other tools at SGD such as BLAST and Web Primer. Please explore these new pages, accessible via the Sequence tab on your favorite Locus Summary page, and send us your feedback.
June 24, 2014
We have redesigned the Protein page to include a new tabular display of protein domains. This table provides the identifier for each domain and illustrates the respective locations of the domains within the protein. In addition to this new table, the domains are displayed in an interactive network diagram that presents the proteins that share these domains with your protein of interest (see figure below, left).
Another new feature on the Protein page is the display of phosphorylation sites within the protein’s sequence (as curated by BioGRID). This feature is available for both the reference strain S288C and other commonly used S. cerevisae strains, using the pull-down to select the desired strain view (see figure below, right) .
March 26, 2014
What happens when you cross two comprehensive deletion mutant collections with a library of more than 1800 structurally diverse chemicals? HIP HOP happens. Not the music, but a whole lot of very informative phenotype data – over 40 million data points!
The response of S. cerevisiae mutant strains to a chemical can tell us a lot about which pathways or processes the chemical affects. This is not only interesting for yeast biologists, but also has important implications for human molecular biology and disease research. So a group at The Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research decided to test the sensitivity of nearly 6,000 mutant yeast strains to a panel of about 1,800 compounds.
Hoepfner and colleagues have published these results and have also generously offered them to SGD. They used the HIP and HOP methods (HIP, HaploInsufficiency Profiling, using diploid heterozygous deletion mutant strains; HOP, HOmozygous deletion Profiling, using diploid homozygous deletion mutant strains) that have proven very useful in yeast since the creation of the systematic deletion mutant collections.
To do this mammoth series of experiments they obviously needed to set up an automated pipeline. These sorts of experiments have been done before, but in this study Hoepfner et al. improved on existing procedures in many ways: the physical techniques, the controls and replicates included, and the methods for data analysis.
Phenotype annotations in SGD. We’ve incorporated a subset of these results into SGD as mutant phenotype annotations. Why a subset? Some of the chemicals that were used in these experiments are un-named proprietary compounds, so the individual phenotypes would not be very informative in the context of SGD. We’ve added the phenotypes that involve named chemicals to SGD – more than 5,500 annotations. These may be viewed on Phenotype Details pages for individual genes (see example), retrieved as a set using Yeastmine, or downloaded along with all SGD mutant phenotype annotations in our phenotype data download file.
Easy access to the full dataset and analyses. We’ve also added a new set of links to SGD that take you directly from your favorite gene to the authors’ website, which provides full access to all of the data and interesting ways to look at it (see below). When you click on a “HIP HOP Profile” link from the Locus Summary page or the Phenotype Details page of a gene in SGD, the landing page at the authors’ website allows you to explore data for mutants in that gene or for chemicals affecting that mutant strain. You can see which chemicals had the greatest effects, which other mutant strains have a similar range of phenotypes, and much more. And if a chemical that has interesting effects is proprietary, don’t worry; Hoepfner and colleagues have stated that they “encourage future academic collaborations around individual compounds used in this study.”
Information about mutant strains. In the course of this study, the authors also generated some very useful data about particular mutant strains in the deletion collection. Some of them were hypersensitive to more than 100 different chemicals. Others turned out to be carrying additional background mutations that could affect the phenotypes of the mutant strain. We are planning to display this kind of information (from this and other studies) directly on SGD Phenotype Details pages in the future.
We thank Dominic Hoepfner and colleagues for sharing these data with SGD and for helping us to incorporate the data. And we encourage you to explore this new resource and contact us with any questions or suggestions.
Categories: New Data