Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) functions in the nonselective clearance of cytoplasm. This process participates in many aspects of cell physiology, and is conserved in all eukaryotes. Autophagy begins with the organization of the phagophore assembly site (PAS), where most of the AuTophaGy-related (Atg) proteins are at least transiently localized. Autophagy occurs at a basal level and can be induced by various types of stress; the process must be tightly regulated because insufficient or excessive autophagy can be deleterious. A complex composed of Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 is vital for PAS organization and autophagy induction, implying a significant role in autophagy regulation. In this study, we demonstrate that Atg29 is a phosphorylated protein and that this modification is critical to its function; alanine substitution at the phosphorylation sites blocks its interaction with the scaffold protein Atg11 and its ability to facilitate assembly of the PAS. Atg29 has the characteristics of an intrinsically disordered protein, suggesting that it undergoes dynamic conformational changes on interaction with a binding partner(s). Finally, single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the Atg17-Atg31-Atg29 complex reveals an elongated structure with Atg29 located at the opposing ends.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|