Histone-DNA complexes, so-called nucleosomes, are the building blocks of DNA packaging in eukaryotic cells. The histone-binding affinity of a local DNA segment depends on its elastic properties and determines its accessibility within the nucleus, which plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. Here, we derive a fitness landscape for intergenic DNA segments in yeast as a function of two molecular phenotypes: their elasticity-dependent histone affinity and their coverage with transcription factor binding sites. This landscape reveals substantial selection against nucleosome formation over a wide range of both phenotypes. We use it as the core component of a quantitative evolutionary model for intergenic DNA segments. This model consistently predicts the observed diversity of histone affinities within wild Saccharomyces paradoxus populations, as well as the affinity divergence between neighboring Saccharomyces species. Our analysis establishes histone binding and transcription factor binding as two separable modes of sequence evolution, each of which is a direct target of natural selection.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|