Dynamic protein turnover through regulated protein synthesis and degradation ensures cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation and adaptation. Eukaryotic cells utilize two mechanistically distinct but largely complementary systems - the 26S proteasome and the lysosome (or vacuole in yeast and plants) - to effectively target a wide range of proteins for degradation. The concerted action of the ubiquitination machinery and the 26S proteasome ensures the targeted and tightly regulated degradation of a subset of commonly short-lived cellular proteins. Autophagy is a distinct degradation pathway, which transports a highly heterogeneous set of cargos in dedicated vesicles, called autophagosomes, to the lysosome. There the cargo becomes degraded and its molecular building blocks are recycled. While general autophagy randomly engulfs portions of the cytosol, selective autophagy employs dedicated cargo adaptors to specifically enrich the forming autophagosomes for a certain type of cargo as a response to various intra- or extracellular signals. Selective autophagy targets a wide range of cargos including long-lived proteins and protein complexes, organelles, protein aggregates and even intracellular microbes. In this review we summarize available data on cargo recognition mechanisms operating in selective autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and emphasize their differences and common themes. Moreover, we derive general regulatory principles underlying cargo recognition in selective autophagy, and describe the system-wide crosstalk between these two cellular protein degradation systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Ubiquitin-Proteasome System. Guest Editors: Thomas Sommer and Dieter H. Wolf.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|