BACKGROUND: Cohesion between sister chromatids is fundamental to ensure faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and accurate repair of DNA damage postreplication. At the molecular level, cohesion establishment involves two defined events, a chromatin binding step and a chromatid entrapment event driven by posttranslational modifications on cohesin subunits. RESULTS: Here, we show that modification by the small ubiquitin-like protein (SUMO) is required for sister chromatid tethering after DNA damage. We find that all subunits of cohesin become SUMOylated upon exposure to DNA damaging agents or presence of a DNA double-strand break. We have mapped all lysine residues on cohesin's alpha-kleisin subunit Mcd1 (Scc1) where SUMO can conjugate. We demonstrate that Mcd1 SUMOylation-deficient alleles are still recruited to DSB-proximal regions but are defective in tethering sister chromatids and consequently fail to establish damage-induced cohesion both at DSBs and undamaged chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrate that the bulk of Mcd1 SUMOylation in response to damage is carried out by the SUMO E3 ligase Nse2, a subunit of the related Smc5-Smc6 complex. SUMOylation occurs in cells with compromised Chk1 kinase activity, necessary for known posttranslational modifications on Mcd1, required for damage-induced cohesion. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that SUMOylation of Mcd1 is a novel prerequisite for the establishment of DNA damage-induced cohesion at DSB-proximal regions and cohesion-associating regions (CARs) genome-wide.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|