Budding yeast cells suffering a single unrepaired DNA double-strand break (DSB) trigger the ATR (Mec1)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint and arrest prior to anaphase for 12-15 h, following which they adapt and resume cell division. When the DNA lesion can be repaired, the checkpoint is extinguished and cells "recover" and resume mitosis. In this autophagic punctum, we report that hyperactivation of autophagy-specifically via the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway-prevents both adaptation to, and recovery from, DNA damage, resulting in the permanent arrest of cells in G 2/M. We show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted for genes encoding the Golgi-associated retrograde protein transport (GARP) complex are both adaptation- and recovery-defective. GARP mutants such as vps51Delta exhibit mislocalization of the key mitotic regulator, securin (Pds1), and its degradation by the vacuolar protease Prb1. In addition, separase (Esp1), is excluded from the nucleus, accounting for pre-anaphase arrest. Pds1 is degraded via the Cvt pathway. Many of the same defects seen by deleting GARP genes can be mimicked by hyperactivation of the Cvt pathway by overexpressing an unphosphorylatable form of ATG13 or by adding the TORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. These results suggest that nuclear events such as DNA damage can have profound effects on cytoplasmic processes and further expand the burgeoning connections between DNA damage and autophagy.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|