The C1'-oxidized lesion 2-deoxyribonolactone (L) is induced by free radical attack of DNA. This lesion is mutagenic, inhibits base excision repair, and can lead to strand scission. In double-stranded DNA L is repaired by long-patch base excision repair, but it induces replication fork arrest in a single-strand template. Translesion synthesis requires a specialized DNA polymerase (Pol). In E. coli, Pol V is responsible for bypassing L, whereas in yeast Pol zeta has been shown to be required for efficient bypass. Very little is known about the identity of human Pols capable of bypassing L. For instance, the activity of family X enzymes has never been investigated. We examined the ability of different family X Pols: Pols beta, lambda, and TdT from human cells and Pol IV from S. cerevisiae to act on DNA containing an isolated 2-deoxyribonolactone, as well as when the lesion comprises the 5'-component of a tandem lesion. We show that Pol beta, but not Pol lambda, can bypass a single L lesion in the template, and its activity is increased by the auxiliary protein proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), whereas both enzymes were completely blocked by a tandem lesion. Yeast Pol IV was able to bypass the single L and the tandem lesion but with little nucleotide insertion specificity. Finally, L did not affect the polymerization activity of the template-independent enzyme TdT.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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