Previously, we characterized Saccharomyces cerevisiae exonuclease 5 (EXO5), which is required for mitochondrial genome maintenance. Here, we identify the human homolog (C1orf176; EXO5) that functions in the repair of nuclear DNA damage. Human EXO5 (hEXO5) contains an iron-sulfur cluster. It is a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-specific bidirectional exonuclease with a strong preference for 5'-ends. After loading at an ssDNA end, hEXO5 slides extensively along the ssDNA prior to cutting, hence the designation sliding exonuclease. However, the single-stranded binding protein human replication protein A (hRPA) restricts sliding and enforces a unique, species-specific 5'-directionality onto hEXO5. This specificity is lost with a mutant form of hRPA (hRPA-t11) that fails to interact with hEXO5. hEXO5 localizes to nuclear repair foci in response to DNA damage, and its depletion in human cells leads to an increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, in particular interstrand cross-linking-inducing agents. Depletion of hEXO5 also results in an increase in spontaneous and damage-induced chromosome abnormalities including the frequency of triradial chromosomes, suggesting an additional defect in the resolution of stalled DNA replication forks in hEXO5-depleted cells.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|