Oxidative stress is known to enhance the frequency of two major types of alterations in the mitochondrial genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: point mutations and large deletions resulting in the generation of respiration-deficient petite rho? mutants. We investigated the effect of antimycin A, a well-known agent inducing oxidative stress, on the stability of mtDNA. We show that antimycin enhances exclusively the generation of respiration-deficient petite mutants and this is accompanied by a significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in a marked drop of cellular ATP. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing revealed that mtDNAs of antimycin-induced petite mutants are deleted for most of the wild-type sequence and usually contain one of the active origins of mtDNA replication: ori1, ori2 ori3 or ori5. We show that the frequency of antimycin-induced rho? mutants is significantly elevated in mutants deleted either for the RAD50 or XRS2 gene, both encoding the components of the MRX complex, which is known to be involved in the repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA. Furthermore, enhanced frequency of rho? mutants in cultures of antimycin-treated cells lacking Rad50 was further increased by the simultaneous absence of the Ogg1 glycosylase, an important enzyme functioning in mtBER. We demonstrate also that rad50? and xrs2? deletion mutants display a considerable reduction in the frequency of allelic mitochondrial recombination, suggesting that it is the deficiency in homologous recombination which is responsible for enhanced rearrangements of mtDNA in antimycin-treated cells of these mutants. Finally, we show that the generation of large-scale mtDNA deletions induced by antimycin is markedly decreased in a nuc1? mutant lacking the activity of the Nuc1 nuclease, an ortholog of the mammalian mitochondrial nucleases EndoG and ExoG. This result indicates that the nuclease plays an important role in processing of oxidative stress-induced lesions in the mitochondrial genome.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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