Although fragmentation of DNA has been observed in cells undergoing freezing procedures, a mutagenic effect of sub-zero temperature treatment has not been proved by induction and isolation of mutants in nuclear DNA (nDNA). In this communication we supply evidence for mutagenicity of freezing on nDNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. In the absence of cryoprotectors, cooling for 2 h at +4 degrees C and freezing for 1 h at -10 degrees C and 16 h at -20 degrees C, with a cooling rate of 3 degrees C/min, resulted in induction of frame-shift and reverse mutations in microsatellite and coding regions of nDNA. The sub-zero temperature exposure also has a strong recombinogenic effect, evidenced by induction of gene-conversion and crossing-over events. Freezing induces mutations and enhances recombination with a frequency equal to or higher than that of methylmethanesulphonate at comparable survival rates. The signals for the appearance of nDNA lesions induced by freezing are detected and transduced by the DNA damage pathway. Extracellular cryoprotectors did not prevent the mutagenic effect of freezing, while accumulation of trehalose inside cells reduced nDNA cryodamage. Freezing of cells is accompanied by generation of high ROS levels, and the oxidative stress raised during the freeze-thaw process is the most likely reason for the DNA damaging effect. Experiments with mitochondrial rho(-) mutants or scavengers of ROS indicated that mutagenic and recombinogenic effects of sub-zero temperatures can be decreased but not eliminated by reduction of ROS level. The complete protection against cryodamage in nDNA required simultaneous usage of intracellular cryoprotector and ROS scavenger during the freeze-thaw process.CI - Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
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