Reference: Healey KR, et al. (2012) CRS-MIS in Candida glabrata: sphingolipids modulate echinocandin-Fks interaction. Mol Microbiol 86(2):303-13

Reference Help

Abstract


Infections with the azole-refractory yeast Candida glabrata are now commonly treated with the echinocandins caspofungin (CSF) or micafungin (MCF). True resistance (>? 32-fold decreased susceptibility) to these lipopeptide inhibitors of cell wall synthesis is rare and strictly associated with mutations in integral membrane proteins Fks1 or Fks2. In contrast, mutants exhibiting 4- to 32-fold CSF reduced susceptibility (CRS) were readily selected in vitro, and surprisingly demonstrated 4- to 32-fold MCF increased susceptibility (MIS). Sequencing and gene deletion demonstrated that CRS-MIS is Fks-independent. To explore alternative mechanisms, we initially employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and observed that CRS was conferred by multiple mutations (fen1?, sur4?, cka2? and tsc10-ts) disrupting sphingolipid biosynthesis. Following this lead, C.?glabrata fen1? and cka2? deletants were constructed, and shown to exhibit CRS-MIS. Sphingolipid analysis of CRS-MIS laboratory mutants and clinical isolates demonstrated elevated dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS) levels, and consistent with this sequencing revealed fen1, sur4, ifa38 and sur2 mutations. Moreover, exogenous DHS or PHS conferred a CRS-MIS phenotype on wild-type C.?glabrata. Exogenous PHS failed, however, to suppress CRS-MIS in a sur2 mutant blocked in conversion of DHS to PHS, implying that accumulation of these intermediates confers CRS-MIS. We conclude that membrane sphingolipids modulate echinocandin-Fks interaction.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Healey KR, Katiyar SK, Raj S, Edlind TD
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference