In eukaryotes, phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2a (eIF2a) by the kinase Gcn2 (general control nonderepressible 2) is a key response to amino acid starvation. Sensing starvation requires that Gcn2 directly contacts its effector protein Gcn1, and both must contact the ribosome. We have proposed that Gcn2 is activated by uncharged tRNA bound to the ribosomal decoding (A) site, in a manner facilitated by ribosome-bound Gcn1. Protein synthesis requires cyclical association of eukaryotic elongation factors (eEFs) with the ribosome. Gcn1 and Gcn2 are large proteins, raising the question of whether translation and monitoring amino acid availability can occur on the same ribosome. Part of the ribosome-binding domain in Gcn1 has homology to one of the ribosome-binding domains in eEF3, suggesting that these proteins utilize overlapping binding sites on the ribosome and consequently cannot function simultaneously on the same ribosome. Supporting this idea, we found that eEF3 overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae diminished growth on amino acid starvation medium (Gcn(-) phenotype) and decreased eIF2a phosphorylation, and that the growth defect associated with constitutively active Gcn2 was diminished by eEF3 overexpression. Overexpression of the eEF3 HEAT domain, or C terminus, was sufficient to confer a Gcn(-) phenotype, and both fragments have ribosome affinity. eEF3 overexpression did not significantly affect Gcn1-ribosome association, but it exacerbated the Gcn(-) phenotype of Gcn1-M7A that has reduced ribosome affinity. Together, this suggests that eEF3 blocks Gcn1 regulatory function on the ribosome. We propose that the Gcn1-Gcn2 complex only functions on ribosomes with A-site-bound uncharged tRNA, because eEF3 does not occupy these stalled complexes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|