Here we show that in aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cells, NH(4) (+) induces cell death associated with shortening of chronological life span. This effect is positively correlated with the concentration of NH(4) (+) added to the culture medium and is particularly evident when cells are starved for auxotrophy-complementing amino acids. NH(4) (+)-induced cell death is accompanied by an initial small increase of apoptotic cells followed by extensive necrosis. Autophagy is inhibited by NH(4) (+), but this does not cause a decrease in cell viability. We propose that the toxic effects of NH(4) (+) are mediated by activation of PKA and TOR and inhibition of Sch9p. Our data show that NH(4) (+) induces cell death in aging cultures through the regulation of evolutionary conserved pathways. They may also provide new insights into longevity regulation in multicellular organisms and increase our understanding of human disorders such as hyperammonemia as well as effects of amino acid deprivation employed as a therapeutic strategy.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|