Fungal species are a very important source of many different enzymes, and the ability of fungi to transform steroids has been used for several decades in the production of compounds with a sterane skeleton. Here, we review the characterised and/or purified enzymes for steroid transformations, dividing them into two groups: (i) enzymes of the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway, including data for, e.g. ERG11 (14alpha-demethylase), ERG6 (C-24 methyltransferase), ERG5 (C-22 desaturase) and ERG4 (C-24 reductase); and (ii) the other steroid-transforming enzymes, including different hydroxylases (7alpha-, 11alpha-, 11beta-, 14alpha-hydroxylase), oxidoreductases (5alpha-reductase, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, C-1/C-2 dehydrogenase) and C-17-C-20 lyase. The substrate specificities of these enzymes, their cellular localisation, their association with protein super-families, and their potential applications are discussed. Article from a special issue on steroids and microorganisms.CI - Copyright A(c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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