Macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) is a bulk degradation system conserved in all eukaryotes, which engulfs cytoplasmic components within double-membrane vesicles to allow their delivery to, and subsequent degradation within, the vacuole/lysosome. Autophagy activity is tightly regulated in response to the nutritional state of the cell and also to maintain organelle homeostasis. In nutrient-rich conditions, Tor kinase complex 1 (TORC1) is activated to inhibit autophagy, whereas inactivation of this complex in response to stress leads to autophagy induction; however, it is unclear how the activity of TORC1 is controlled to allow precise adjustments in autophagy activity. In this study, we performed genetic analyses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify factors that regulate TORC1 activity. We determined that the Ksp1 kinase functions in part as a negative regulator of autophagy; deletion of KSP1 facilitated dephosphorylation of Atg13, a TORC1 substrate, which correlates with enhanced autophagy. These results suggest that Ksp1 down-regulates autophagy activity via the TORC1 pathway. The suppressive function of Ksp1 is partially activated by the Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which is another negative regulator of autophagy. Our study therefore identifies Ksp1 as a new component that functions as part of the PKA and TORC1 signaling network to control the magnitude of autophagy.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|