Reference: Xue Y, et al. (2011) A Novel Checkpoint and RPA Inhibitory Pathway Regulated by Rif1. PLoS Genet 7(12):e1002417

Reference Help

Abstract


Cells accumulate single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) when telomere capping, DNA replication, or DNA repair is impeded. This accumulation leads to cell cycle arrest through activating the DNA-damage checkpoints involved in cancer protection. Hence, ssDNA accumulation could be an anti-cancer mechanism. However, ssDNA has to accumulate above a certain threshold to activate checkpoints. What determines this checkpoint-activation threshold is an important, yet unanswered question. Here we identify Rif1 (Rap1-Interacting Factor 1) as a threshold-setter. Following telomere uncapping, we show that budding yeast Rif1 has unprecedented effects for a protein, inhibiting the recruitment of checkpoint proteins and RPA (Replication Protein A) to damaged chromosome regions, without significantly affecting the accumulation of ssDNA at those regions. Using chromatin immuno-precipitation, we provide evidence that Rif1 acts as a molecular "band-aid" for ssDNA lesions, associating with DNA damage independently of Rap1. In consequence, small or incipient lesions are protected from RPA and checkpoint proteins. When longer stretches of ssDNA are generated, they extend beyond the junction-proximal Rif1-protected regions. In consequence, the damage is detected and checkpoint signals are fired, resulting in cell cycle arrest. However, increased Rif1 expression raises the checkpoint-activation threshold to the point it simulates a checkpoint knockout and can also terminate a checkpoint arrest, despite persistent telomere deficiency. Our work has important implications for understanding the checkpoint and RPA-dependent DNA-damage responses in eukaryotic cells.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Xue Y, Rushton MD, Maringele L
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference