Structural characterization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is hindered by the inherent hydrophobicity, flexibility, and large size of these signaling proteins. Insights into conformational preferences and the three-dimensional (3D) structure of domains of these receptors can be obtained using polypeptide fragments of these proteins. Herein, we report the expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of a three-transmembrane domain-containing 131-residue fragment of the yeast a-factor receptor, Ste2p. Ste2p TM1?TM3 (G31?R161) was expressed as a Trp?LE fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein was subject to CNBr cleavage to remove the fusion tag and TM1?TM3 was purified by reverse-phased HPLC. The cleavage product was isolated in yields of up to 20 mg per liter of culture in both unlabeled and uniformly [15N]-labeled and [15N, 13C, 2H]-labeled forms. The secondary structure of TM1?TM3 was determined to be helical in a number of membrane mimetic environments, including 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE):water and lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG) detergent micelles by circular dichroism. Preliminary HSQC analysis in 50% TFE:water and LMPG micelles prepared in sodium phosphate and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffers revealed that this fragment is suitable for structural analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Complete backbone assignments and a detailed localization of the secondary structural elements of TM1?TM3 in 50% TFE:water have been achieved.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|