We propose a scheme for the origin of mitochondria based on phylogenetic reconstructions with more than 400 yeast nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial proteins. Half of the yeast mitochondrial proteins have no discernable bacterial homologues, while one-tenth are unequivocally of alpha-proteobacterial origin. These data suggest that the majority of genes encoding yeast mitochondrial proteins are descendants of two different genomic lineages that have evolved in different modes. First, the ancestral free-living alpha-proteobacterium evolved into an endosymbiont of an anaerobic host. Most of the ancestral bacterial genes were lost, but a small fraction of genes supporting bioenergetic and translational processes were retained and eventually transferred to what became the host nuclear genome. In a second, parallel mode, a larger number of novel mitochondrial genes were recruited from the nuclear genome to complement the remaining genes from the bacterial ancestor. These eukaryotic genes, which are primarily involved in transport and regulatory functions, transformed the endosymbiont into an ATP-exporting organelle.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|