Abstract Frequently, although not exclusively, multidrug resistance (MDR) results from the action of drug-efflux pumps, which are thought to be able to catalyze the active expulsion of several unrelated cytotoxic compounds out of the cell or their intracellular partitioning. The transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) presumably involved in MDR belong to the 12-spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA1 or to the 14- spanner drug:H(+) antiporter DHA2 families. The expression of most Saccharomyces cerevisiae DHA1 family members was found to confer broad chemoprotection. The evolution of the hemiascomycetous DHA1 proteins, belonging to the Genolevures GL3C007 family, was studied using a combined phylogenetic and gene neighborhood approach. The phylogenetic analysis of 189 DHA1 proteins belonging to the genome of 13 hemiascomycetous species identified 20 clusters. Eleven clusters contained no S. cerevisiae members. The phylogenetic clusters were analyzed by the IONS method developed for Identification of Orthologues by Neighborhood and Similarity. This allowed reconstructing the evolutionary history of most DHA1 members within 10 main gene lineages, spanning the whole hemiascomycetes clade, encompassing an evolutionary history of about 350 million years. In addition, five other more species specific lineages, spanning only two hemiascomycetous species, were identified. It is concluded that 57 out of the 143 members of the DHA1 hemiascomycetous members originated from gene duplication events. In half of these duplicates, the two members belong to different phylogenetic clusters, indicating that at least one of them has sufficiently differentiated to provide potential novel functions to this complex family from which most physiological substrates remain unknown.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|