Studies in budding yeast suggest the protein kinase Rad53 plays novel roles in controlling initiation of DNA replication and in maintaining cellular histone levels, and these roles are independent of Rad53-mediated regulation of the checkpoint and of nucleotide levels. In order to elucidate the role of Rad53 in replication initiation, we isolated a novel allele of RAD53, rad53-rep, that separates the checkpoint function of RAD53 from the DNA replication function. rad53-rep mutants display a chromosome loss phenotype that is suppressed by increased origin dosage, providing further evidence that Rad53 plays a role in the initiation of DNA replication. Deletion of the major histone H3-H4 pair suppresses rad53-rep-cdc7-1 synthetic lethality, suggesting Rad53's functions in degradation of excess cellular histone and in replication initiation are related. Rad53-rep is active as a protein kinase yet fails to interact with origins of replication and like the rad53D mutant, the rad53-rep mutant accumulates excess soluble histones, and it is sensitive to histone dosage. In contrast, a checkpoint defective allele of RAD53 with mutations in both FHA domains, binds origins, and growth of a rad53-FHA mutant is unaffected by histone dosage. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the origin binding and the histone degradation activities of Rad53 are central to its function in DNA replication and are independent of its checkpoint functions. We propose a model in which Rad53 acts as a "nucleosome buffer," interacting with origins of replication to prevent the binding of excess histones to origin DNA and to maintain proper chromatin configuration.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|