The import of proteins into mitochondria is an essential process, largely investigated in vitro with isolated mitochondria and radioactively labeled precursors. In this study, we used intact cells and fusions with genes encoding two reporter proteins, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and beta-galactosidase (lacZ), to probe the import of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC). Typical mitochondrial fluorescence was observed with AAC-GFP fusions containing at least one complete transmembrane loop. This confirms the results of in vitro analysis demonstrating that an internal targeting signal was present in each one of the three transmembrane loops of the carrier. The fusions of AAC fragments to beta-galactosidase demonstrated that the targeting signal was capable of delivering the reporter molecule to the mitochondrial surface, but not to internalize it to a protease-inaccessible location. The delivery to a protease-inaccessible location required the presence of more distal sequences present within the third (C-terminal) transmembrane loop of the carrier molecule. The results of our study provide an alternative for investigation in a natural context of mitochondrial protein import in cells when the isolation of intact, functional mitochondria is not achievable.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|