Take our Survey

Reference: Daviet S, et al. (2007) Major oxidative products of cytosine are substrates for the nucleotide incision repair pathway. DNA Repair (Amst) 6(1):8-18

Reference Help

Abstract


Most common point mutations occurring spontaneously or induced by ionizing radiation are C-->T transitions implicating cytosine as the target. Oxidative cytosine derivatives are the most abundant and mutagenic DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. Base excision repair (BER) pathway initiated by DNA glycosylases is thought to be the major pathway for the removal of these lesions. However, in alternative nucleotide incision repair (NIR) pathway the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases incise DNA duplex 5' to an oxidatively damaged base in a DNA glycosylase-independent manner. Here, we characterized the substrate specificity of human major AP endonuclease, Ape1, towards 5-hydroxy-2'-deoxycytidine (5ohC) and alpha-anomeric 2'-deoxycytidine (alphadC) residues. The apparent kinetic parameters of the reactions suggest that Ape1 and the DNA glycosylases/AP lyases, hNth1 and hNeil1 repair 5ohC with a low efficiency. Nevertheless, due to the extremely high cellular concentration of Ape1, NIR was the major activity towards 5ohC in cell-free extracts. To address the physiological role of NIR function, we have characterized naturally occurring Ape1 variants including amino acids substitutions (E126A, E126D and D148E) and N-terminal truncated forms (NDelta31, NDelta35 and NDelta61). As expected, all Ape1 mutants had proficient AP endonuclease activity, however, truncated forms showed reduced NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities indicating that these two functions are genetically linked and governed by the same amino acid residues. Furthermore, both Ape1-catalyzed NIR and 3'-->5' exonuclease activities generate a single-strand gap at the 5' side of a damaged base but not at an AP site in duplex DNA. We hypothesized that biochemical coupling of the nucleotide incision and exonuclease degradation may serve to remove clustered DNA damage. Our data suggest that NIR is a backup system for the BER pathway to remove oxidative damage to cytosines in vivo.

Reference Type
Journal Article | Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Authors
Daviet S, Couve-Privat S, Gros L, Shinozuka K, Ide H, Saparbaev M, Ishchenko AA
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference