DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a threat to cell survival and genome integrity. In addition to canonical DNA repair systems, DSBs can be converted to telomeres by telomerase. This process, herein termed telomere healing, endangers genome stability, since it usually results in chromosome arm loss. Therefore, cells possess mechanisms that prevent the untimely action of telomerase on DSBs. Here we report that Mec1, the ATR ortholog, couples the detection of DNA ends with the inhibition of telomerase. Mec1 inhibits telomere healing by phosphorylating Cdc13 on its S306 residue, a phosphorylation event that suppresses Cdc13 accumulation at DSBs. Conversely, telomere addition at accidental breaks is promoted by Pph3, the yeast protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). Pph3 is itself modulated by Rrd1, an activator of PP2A family phosphatases. Rrd1 and Pph3 oppose Cdc13 S306 phosphorylation and are necessary for the efficient accumulation of Cdc13 at DNA breaks. These studies therefore identify a mechanism by which the ATR family of kinases enforces genome integrity, and a process that underscores the contribution of Cdc13 to the fate of DNA ends.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|