Monitoring Editor: Fred Chang The assembly of filamentous actin is essential for polarized bud growth in budding yeast. Actin cables, which are assembled by the formins Bni1p and Bnr1p, are thought to be the only actin structures that are essential for budding. However, we found that formin or tropomyosin mutants, which lack actin cables, are still able to form a small bud. Additional mutations in components for cortical actin patches, which are assembled by the Arp2/3 complex to play a pivotal role in endocytic vesicle formation, inhibited this budding. Genes involved in endocytic recycling were also required for small-bud formation in actin cable-less mutants. These results suggest that budding yeast possesses a mechanism that promotes polarized growth by local recycling of endocytic vesicles. Interestingly, the type V myosin Myo2p, which was thought to use only actin cables to track, also contributed to budding in the absence of actin cables. These results suggest that some actin network may serve as the track for Myo2p-driven vesicle transport in the absence of actin cables, or that Myo2p can function independent of actin filaments. Our results also show that polarity regulators including Cdc42p were still polarized in mutants defective in both actin cables and cortical actin patches, suggesting that the actin cytoskeleton does not play a major role in cortical assembly of polarity regulators in budding yeast.
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