Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated destruction of both misfolded and normal ER-resident proteins. ERAD substrates must be moved from the ER to the cytoplasm for ubiquitination and proteasomal destruction by a process called retrotranslocation. Many aspects of retrotranslocation are poorly understood, including its generality, the cellular components required, the energetics, and the mechanism of transfer through the ER membrane. To address these questions, we have developed an in vitro assay, using the 8-transmembrane span ER-resident Hmg2p isozyme of HMG-CoA reductase fused to GFP, which undergoes regulated ERAD mediated by the Hrd1p ubiquitin ligase. We have now directly demonstrated in vitro retrotranslocation of full-length, ubiquitinated Hmg2p-GFP to the aqueous phase. Hrd1p was rate-limiting for Hmg2p-GFP retrotranslocation, which required ATP, the AAA-ATPase Cdc48p, and its receptor Ubx2p. In addition, the adaptors Dsk2p and Rad23p, normally implicated in later parts of the pathway, were required. Hmg2p-GFP retrotranslocation did not depend on any of the proposed ER channel candidates. To examine the role of the Hrd1p transmembrane domain as a retrotranslocon, we devised a self-ubiquitinating polytopic substrate (Hmg1-Hrd1p) that undergoes ERAD in the absence of Hrd1p. In vitro retrotranslocation of full-length Hmg1-Hrd1p occurred in the absence of the Hrd1p transmembrane domain, indicating that it did not serve a required channel function. These studies directly demonstrate polytopic membrane protein retrotranslocation during ERAD and delineate avenues for mechanistic understanding of this general process.
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|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|