RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is the central enzyme of eukaryotic gene expression machinery. Complete definition of the three-dimensional structure of Pol II is essential for understanding the mechanisms that regulate transcription via protein-protein interactions within the Pol II apparatus. To date a series of Pol II-related crystal structures have been reported. However, certain peptide regions, including several that are implicated to interact with regulatory factors, remain obscure. Here we describe conformations for two such regions that are close to the Pol II surface and assume seemingly flexible loop structures. One is located in the TFIIF-interacting Protrusion domain, whereas the other is in the TFIIE-interacting Clamp domain. This structural definition was aided by the application of an advanced crystallographic refinement approach that utilizes the single anomalous diffraction (SAD) from zinc ions bound intrinsically in Pol II. The SAD-based strategy allowed the 12-subunit Pol II model to be fully refined up to 3.8 A with excellent stereochemical properties, demonstrating the effectiveness of the SAD approach for the refinement of large structures at low-to-moderate resolutions. Our results also define additional components of the free Pol II, including the functionally critical Fork Loop-1 and Fork Loop-2 elements. As such, this refined Pol II model provides the most complete structural reference for future analyses of complex structures formed between Pol II and its regulatory factors.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|