Protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an elaborate process conserved from yeast to mammals, ensuring that only newly synthesized proteins with correct conformations in the ER are sorted further into the secretory pathway. It is well known that high-mannose type N-glycans are involved in protein-folding events. In the quality control process, proteins that fail to achieve proper folding or proper assembly are degraded in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The ERAD pathway comprises multiple steps including substrate recognition and targeting to the retro-translocation machinery, retro-translocation from the ER into the cytosol, and proteasomal degradation through ubiquitination. Recent studies have documented the important roles of sugar-recognition (lectin-type) molecules for trimmed high-mannose type N-glycans and glycosidases in the ERAD pathways in both ER and cytosol. In this review, we discuss a fundamental system that monitors glycoprotein folding in the ER and the unique roles of the sugar-recognizing ubiquitin ligase and peptide:N-glycanase (PNGase) in the cytosolic ERAD pathway.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Annotation Extension||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Assay||Construct||Conditions||Strain Background||Reference|