Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) is one of the rare mitochondrial enzymes evolved to use manganese as a co-factor over the more abundant element iron. Although mitochondrial iron does not normally bind SOD2, iron will mis-incorporate into S. cerevisiae Sod2p when cells are starved for manganese or when mitochondrial iron homeostasis is disrupted by mutations in yeast grx5, ssq1 and mtm1. We report here that such changes in mitochondrial manganese and iron similarly affect co-factor selection in a heterologously expressed E. coli Mn-SOD, but not a highly homologous Fe-SOD. By XANES and EXAFS analyses of isolated mitochondria, we find that mis-incorporation of iron into yeast Sod2p does not correlate with significant changes in the average oxidation state or coordination chemistry of bulk mitochondrial iron. Instead, small changes in mitochondrial iron are likely to promote iron-SOD2 interactions. Iron binds Sod2p in yeast mutants blocking late stages of iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis (grx5, ssq1 and atm1), but not in mutants defective in the upstream Isu proteins that serve as scaffolds for iron-sulfur biosynthesis. In fact we observed a requirement for the Isu proteins in iron inactivation of yeast Sod2p. Sod2p activity was restored in mtm1 and grx5 mutants by depleting cells of Isu proteins or using a dominant negative Isu1p predicted to stabilize iron binding to Isu1p. In all cases where disruptions in iron homeostasis inactivated Sod2p, we observed an increase in mitochondrial Isu proteins. These studies indicate that the Isu proteins and the iron-sulfur pathway can donate iron to Sod2p.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|