Identification of phosphopeptides by MS is challenging due to their relatively low abundance in proteomic samples and their limited ionization efficiency. Various affinity enrichment methods have been used in the literature. Titanium dioxide SPE devices have been recently proposed as an alternative to immobilized metal affinity chromatography for phosphopeptide enrichment. This study evaluates the TiO(2 )method using sorbent packed in a 96 well microscale extraction plate operated using a vacuum manifold. The phosphopeptide recovery and enrichment selectivity were investigated at various loading conditions. The effectiveness of organic additives such as dihydroxybenzoic acid derivatives and other nonaliphatic carboxylic acids on enrichment selectivity was examined. The performance of TiO(2) was compared to IMAC sorbent. The results suggest that various additives improve the enrichment selectivity by effectively interfering with the acidic peptides binding to TiO(2) sorbent. Interaction of phosphopeptides with sorbent is also affected, which leads to overall reduction in phosphopeptide recovery. The new SPE device was successfully utilized for the extraction of phosphopeptides from yeast lysate digest using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to minimize the interference from nonphosphorylated peptides.
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