The critical role of the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system in regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes is well established. In contrast, the impact of the ubiquitin-independent proteolytic activity of proteasomes is poorly understood. Through biochemical analysis of mammalian lysates, we find that the 20 S proteasome, latent in peptide hydrolysis, specifically cleaves more than 20% of all cellular proteins. Thirty intrinsic proteasome substrates (IPSs) were identified and in vitro studies of their processing revealed that cleavage occurs at disordered regions, generating stable products encompassing structured domains. The mechanism of IPS recognition is remarkably well conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom, as mammalian and yeast 20 S proteasomes exhibit the same target specificity. Further, 26 S proteasomes specifically recognize and cleave IPSs at similar sites, independent of ubiquitination, suggesting that disordered regions likely constitute the universal structural signal for IPS proteolysis by proteasomes. Finally, we show that proteasomes contribute to physiological regulation of IPS levels in living cells and the inactivation of ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 does not prevent IPS degradation. Collectively, these findings suggest a significant contribution of the ubiquitin-independent proteasome degradation pathway to the regulation of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes.
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Interactor||Interactor Systematic Name||Type||Assay||Annotation||Action||Modification||Phenotype||Source||Reference||Note|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Gene Ontology Term||Gene Ontology Term ID||Qualifier||Aspect||Method||Evidence||Source||Assigned On||Reference||Annotation Extension|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Gene||Gene Systematic Name||Phenotype||Experiment Type||Experiment Type Category||Mutant Information||Strain Background||Chemical||Details||Reference|
|Evidence ID||Analyze ID||Regulator||Regulator Systematic Name||Target||Target Systematic Name||Experiment||Conditions||Strain||Source||Reference|