Take our Survey

Reference: Li F, et al. (2008) Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: autophagy as a mechanism for variant allozyme degradation. Pharmacogenet Genomics 18(12):1083-94

Reference Help

Abstract


OBJECTIVE: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT)*3A is degraded much more rapidly than is the 'wild-type' enzyme through a ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent process. It also forms aggresomes, suggesting a possible dynamic balance between degradation and aggregation. We set out to identify genes encoding proteins participating in these processes. METHODS: Green fluorescent protein tagged TPMT*3A was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion library, and flow cytometry was used to screen for cells with high fluorescence intensity, indicating the loss of a gene essential for TPMT*3A degradation. RESULTS: Twenty-four yeast genes were identified in functional categories that included ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, vesicle trafficking, and vacuolar degradation. The presence of genes encoding proteins involved in vesicular transport and vacuolar degradation suggested a possible role in TPMT*3A degradation for autophagy - a process not previously identified as a pharmacogenomic mechanism. In support of that hypothesis, TPMT*3A aggregates increased dramatically in mutants for vacuolar protease and autophagy-related genes. Furthermore, TPMT*3A expression in human cells induced autophagy, and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ATG7, an autophagy-related human protein, enhanced TPMT*3A aggregation but not that of TPMT*3C or wild-type TPMT, indicating that autophagy contributes to TPMT*3A degradation in mammalian cells. We also demonstrated that UBE2G2, the human homologue of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme identified during the yeast genetic screen, was involved in TPMT*3A degradation in human cells. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that autophagy should be considered among mechanisms responsible for the effects of pharmacogenetically significant polymorphisms that alter encoded amino acids.

Reference Type
Journal Article
Authors
Li F, Wang L, Burgess RJ, Weinshilboum RM
Primary Lit For
Additional Lit For
Review For

Interaction Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page by using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details about experiment type and any other genes involved in the interaction.

Interactor Interactor Type Assay Annotation Action Modification Phenotype Source Reference

Gene Ontology Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table.

Gene Gene Ontology Term Qualifier Aspect Method Evidence Source Assigned On Annotation Extension Reference

Phenotype Annotations


Increase the total number of rows showing on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; filter the table using the "Filter" box at the top of the table; click on the small "i" buttons located within a cell for an annotation to view further details.

Gene Phenotype Experiment Type Mutant Information Strain Background Chemical Details Reference

Regulation Annotations


Increase the total number of rows displayed on this page using the pull-down located below the table, or use the page scroll at the table's top right to browse through the table's pages; use the arrows to the right of a column header to sort by that column; to filter the table by a specific experiment type, type a keyword into the Filter box (for example, “microarray”); download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine.

Regulator Target Experiment Assay Construct Conditions Strain Background Reference